FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
How to recognize the different types of cough?
A cough is not a disease, but a symptom due to many different causes, and so what one must look for in the presence of a cough is the cause of the disorder. If there are other symptoms present (fever, congestion, presence of phlegm, particular noises on listening to the chest) it is possible to suspect an infectious disease of the respiratory tract (flu, cold, acute bronchitis, pneumonia) or an allergic phenomenon (asthma). The cough can be of different kinds, and knowing what type it is can be helpful in directing us to the most likely disease. The cough can be: dry, wheezy, without phlegm in case of an initial viral infection, smoking or allergy; catarrhal (stage that usually follows the wheezy one); barking (seal or doggy cough) in case of laryngitis; with whistling or hissing in case of asthma; convulsive (violent cough with accesses) in case of pertussis. If the dry or catarrhal cough is accompanied by yellow or greenish mucus and has lasted for more than two weeks, sinusitis should be suspected.
In young children, especially those attending nurseries or kindergartens, particularly in the early years, a catarrhal cough in the winter months is a response to early viral infections (remember that there are more than 70 viruses that cause colds and that immunity to these infections is not permanent). If the child is alert, plays, eats and rests regularly, even if he coughs at night, there is no need to worry.
How to manage cough in the child?
Coughing is a symptom that bothers the child (doesn’t let him sleep, sometimes causes him to vomit) and worries parents, but it is actually a generally useful mechanism for clearing phlegm. Phlegm (or mucus) is a viscous substance produced by certain glands found in the respiratory tract, which is useful because it lubricates the airways, engulfs viruses, bacteria, irritants, and pollutants by facilitating their elimination by cells, such as white blood cells.
So phlegm although it can be bothersome, should never be suppressed, but should be made fluid to facilitate elimination by coughing. Sometimes the child vomits under the coughing fit, and mucus may also be seen in the vomit. There is no need to be alarmed, as the child has eliminated in this way the phlegm that was produced. Sometimes it can be observed that the mucus is also eliminated with the feces.
Is aerosol helpful?
It is important to help the child by facilitating the expulsion of phlegm, for example by making it more fluid. Water is the most important means of thinning mucus, so in case of a cough, it is advisable to have the child drink plenty of fluids preferably warm fluids (e.g., sweetened herbal teas or milk), do nasal washes with physiological saline, and do aerosols with physiological saline water. Honey, given by teaspoonfuls, after the first year of age, especially before going to bed, has a ‘calming action.
Is it also important to humidify the environment?
Yes, the ‘right humidity is 40-60%), without adding balsamic substances that are sometimes irritating. Environmental humidification is especially useful in cases of barking coughs: the steam-saturated environment (for example, the bathroom with all hot water faucets open to the maximum) ensures optimal hydration of the respiratory tract.
If the child or parents are allergic to mold (mites)?
It is best not to humidify the room so as not to encourage the proliferation of mites. It is important to ventilate the rooms well: the air in the house should always be renewed. Eliminating exposure to smoke is absolutely a basic rule. In case of a cough, it may be necessary to suspend sports activities, especially outdoors: the fresh air inhaled quickly could trigger cough access.
When is it appropriate to give antibiotics?
As for phlegm-dissolving drugs (mucolytics) commonly on the market, their efficacy is not proven, indeed a recent Ministry of Health note advises against their use under two years of age. Other drugs act on the cough center centrally (products containing codeine) and are absolutely not recommended in children. Only if the cough is very disturbing (a nighttime cough that prevents the child from sleeping), a non-central cough sedative may be used as needed, again on the advice of the pediatrician.
Normally the catarrhal cough resolves in about 10 days. In some cases, however, phlegm may settle in the ear and bronchi, giving rise to otitis or bronchitis. In these cases, a visit to the pediatrician is helpful, to assess whether antibiotic therapy needs to be started.
When is it appropriate to have the child urgently examined?
An urgent pediatrician visit is necessary if a cough is accompanied by difficult breathing and if the child appears to be in pain, if the child is small and cannot feed, if the lips turn bluish during coughing access, or there has been a high fever for a few days.
How to deal with a child who starts coughing?
When a child starts coughing there are indeed many anxieties that invest parents since the possible causes can range from the trivial cold (as is often the case!) to whooping cough, from laryngotracheitis to the infamous bronchitis; or even, less frequently, the cough may depend on more serious conditions such as bronchopneumonia or pleurisy.
The causes of cough are indeed many, but in this article we will examine the CAUSES OF COUGHING FOR A FEW DAYS (also called acute cough lasting it for less than 3 weeks). Long-lasting cough, on the other hand (i.e., a cough that lasts continuously for more than 3 weeks) will be the subject of another article to be published on this site. Here are some useful notions that can guide you as you wait for your pediatrician’s visit!
Dry cough or oily cough?
It is useful to begin with an important distinction:
– A dry (or wheezy) cough is a type of cough that is an end in itself and occurs in the absence of secretions and therefore “does not move mucus”; it is often very annoying, sometimes continuous.
– An oily (or mucusy) cough, on the other hand, is a type of cough that has a very specific purpose, and that is to “stir up the mucus” accumulated at the level of the bronchi and lungs or, more often, at the level of what most of you generically call the “throat” (referring, to be precise, to the pharynx, larynx and trachea together).
When to suspect a simple cold?
A cold is certainly the most common cause of cough in children especially when the child is not yet blowing his nose. Usually when it is a simple cold it often happens that the cough is oily and is triggered especially when the child is lying down (and thus the mucus from the nose “falls” down his throat where it accumulates!); in an attempt to get rid of these mucus from the throat it may occur that the little one in the middle of the night or early in the morning starts coughing violently; these “fits” of coughing sometimes last up to a few hours and may culminate in the vomiting of mucus perhaps mixed with the dinner of the night before. After the baby clears this tangle of mucus from the throat, the coughing usually subsides for a few hours and then resumes when a new accumulation builds up.
When to suspect tracheitis or laryngotracheitis?
They represent other fairly frequent causes of coughs in children (but also in adults!) that, like colds, occur mainly when the weather is cold, the air is dry, and perhaps we are uncovered at night or walking barefoot. Usually here we have an initially dry, hacking cough that tends to “mature” becoming mucousy after 3-4 days; the cough is almost continuous, very annoying. The difference between tracheitis and laryngotracheitis is that in the latter, the larynx (i.e., the narrowest area of the airway!) is also involved, and here usually the cough takes on a typical “dog-like” noise (as if the child were barking!) or there is a lowering of the timbre of the voice; sometimes difficulty in breathing (laryngospasm! i.e., the larynx “tightens” by closing!) ensues.
In most cases, since these are mostly viral infections, healing can be achieved with appropriate aerosol therapy to be agreed with one’s pediatrician according to the child’s characteristics, without necessarily having to resort to oral antibiotics. Of course, it will be the pediatrician who visits the little one who will decide, if necessary, the most appropriate time to start antibiotics. When the cough is very frequent and wheezy, it is in fact always recommended to have the child examined since there could also be other causes of the cough and sometimes more serious and deserving of more aggressive therapy (which we continue to list below).
When to suspect acute bronchitis?
Usually in bronchitis cough is almost continuous, insistent, and can be either dry or oily, depending on the stage we are in. Contrary to what many people think, bronchitis is also in most cases viral in nature and is therefore amenable to spontaneous healing even without antibiotics! However, being a lower airway infection, it is more likely to develop bacterial overinfection with the need for antibiotics. It will therefore always be the pediatrician who will assess, based on the examination and the child’s characteristics, whether it is possible to wait a few days for spontaneous healing without antibiotics or whether appropriate antibiotics need to be started immediately.
When to suspect asthmatic bronchitis?
These are forms in which in addition to the production of bronchial mucus there is also a tendency for “bronchial closure” (in technical terms: bronchospasm or bronchostenosis).In these cases it will certainly be useful to introduce, on the advice of your pediatrician.
When to suspect pertussis?
Despite the existence of vaccination it is still possible for a child (and even an adult!) to contract pertussis as it has been shown that the protection of the vaccine tends to diminish after 5-6 years (which is why a booster is given around age 5!). In pertussis, there is a first phase(catarrhal) that is difficult to distinguish from a common cold characterized by mucus in the upper respiratory tract, sometimes some fever and a mucous cough. After a few days the second phase(paroxysmal) takes over and is characterized by violent bouts of dry, wheezing, close-mouthed coughing that often ends with the famous “pull” (i.e., the child, after the apnea phase due to repeated coughing pulls in air quickly generating a peculiar inspiratory noise). During the coughing fit, the baby often appears in pain, face swollen, eyes bloodshot and tongue protruded. Coughing fits occur with a frequency that can vary from 4-5 times a day (mild forms) up to 40-50 times a day (severe forms) enough to require hospitalization and oxygen therapy. Sometimes they are triggered by trivial stimuli such as laughter or feeding.
When to suspect bronchopneumonia or pneumonia?
These are respiratory infections in which it is the deepest part of the airways (i.e., the lung!) that becomes infected and inflamed and thus becomes denser, leaving less room for air to enter. To illustrate: imagine that the lung is normally made up of millions of tiny round “little chambers” (called pulmonary alveoli) into which air constantly enters and leaves. In case of bronchopneumonia these tiny “little chambers” collapse in on themselves and there is less room for air to enter! If the pneumonia is very severe and extensive even it may happen that the child oxygenates less and may require hospitalization. The thickening of the lung may occur in the initial part of these tiny chambers (interstitial pneumonia) or in the final and deepest part of them (lobar pneumonia).
Is fever always present in pneumonia?
ABSOLUTELY NOT. Although it is often present, fever is not a constant, and it is not uncommon to observe children (or even adults!) with pneumonia who are minimally or even not at all feverish!
Is it always necessary to get shots in case of pneumonia?
ABSOLUTELY NOT. It has been proven for years now that oral antibiotics, when properly adjusted in dosage by your pediatrician, can completely CURE pneumonia…all of course provided the child is cooperative and does well on the therapy! If not, then it is best to resort to syringes.
Is X-ray always necessary to confirm pneumonia?
ABSOLUTELY NOT. In most cases a simple pediatric examination is enough to hear with the phonendoscope that there is pneumonia and initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy. Your pediatrician may choose to take a chest X-ray of your child (unfortunately subjecting him to X-rays!) especially in cases where a particularly severe form is suspected at the visit, a complication, or if after 48 hours of appropriate therapy there is no improvement!
When is chest X-ray useful in cases of cough?
It is not always useful to take a chest X-ray in the presence of a cough or other respiratory symptoms. The decision to X-ray the child (a practice not without potential long-term damage!) should be made by the physician based on criteria of:
- Severity of symptoms
- Suspicion of complications
- Failure to respond to prescribed therapies
- Individual characteristics of the child (medical history, underlying medical conditions etc)
Should child sleep on the side?
Unfortunately, even in the side position studies and statistics describe to us a higher incidence of crib death. If for no other reason, too, because in the side position the baby is likely to end up prone during the night unable to turn over. And if in addition to crib death we again reason only about nocturnal regurgitation, imagining the baby in the photo below in the side position it is clear that the force of gravity in that position still does not play in favor of the baby by facilitating the entry of gastric material into the trachea. Keeping the baby supine, on the other hand, once the gastric material has passed that point and arrived in the mouth, perhaps even aided by a bit of coughing, it will be the same baby who instinctively, because of the discomfort he feels, will turn his head only to the side (and not his whole body!) facilitating its exit from the mouth as well.
NASAL WASHES PREGNANT WOMAN Health issues in pregnancy are particularly tedious, and even the smallest cold is very annoying because, as you know, you cannot take many medications. Be careful not to confuse a cold with rhinitis, however. The symptoms are similar (stuffy nose, sneezing, itching, watery eyes), but the origin is different. This disorder affects 60 percent of expectant mothers. Rhinitis gravidarum has the symptoms of those of a cold. Doctors identify this ailment when there is nasal congestion, but neither viral nor bacterial infection is ongoing. And of course allergic origin is also ruled out. The cause is hormones, which increase vascularization and glandular secretions that cause the nasal mucosa to swell and become congested. This is the same explanation that we can give in case of nose bleeding, which as you know is more frequent in pregnancy. According to experts, high molecular weight hyaluronic acid can be taken. The effect is quite immediate: symptoms improve quickly, and most importantly, you have the feeling of breathing better. Moreover, hyaluronic acid, which women already know because it is the basis of many beauty treatments, is a natural substance, present in the body and in the placenta. It is consequently harmless to mother and baby. As always, hormones are responsible, which stress the mucous membrane of the nose, which swells and becomes congested. It is not a serious disorder, considering that during gestation it can really bother, but then at the time of delivery it disappears completely. There are cases, very rare, that it can cause some serious injury, for example to the turbinates, which are three bony protrusions present in the nasal fossa. When can it occur? Starting in the first trimester (from the tenth week onward) throughout pregnancy. In addition to the elevation of hormones, this situation is also created by increased blood flow (we know that mom’s blood production is definitely higher than normal) in the airways. Therefore, do not be frightened if epistaxis episodes also appear. The best thing, however, is to choose alternative ways to soften the mucous membranes and improve breathing. Use nasal washes, a humidifier in the room where you sleep, you could also try an aerosol with just distilled water.
NEWBORN NASAL WASHES Nose health is very important for infants, because breathing well is a baby’s first defense against discomfort and infection; the nose is not only an organ for the passage of air but also an important link for all respiratory tracts, such as the ears, throat, and sinuses. It is obvious, therefore, that if the nose is disturbed by the presence of secretions and infections it cannot function well, especially in infants in whom the connections between the nose and other parts are even more direct. The nose also has the function of defending the body from external aggression, thanks to the mucosa, that is, the inner lining tissue. A clear nose is an excellent guarantee against colds and respiratory diseases, in fact, only if the mucosa is not obstructed by mucus can it play its role of defending infections and irritations in the best way. More attention should be paid to infants because until the first year of age the little one breathes almost exclusively through the nose, and its obstruction leads to the improper supply of oxygen to the lungs; moreover, until the age of 3 years the child is not able to blow his nose by himself, and therefore it is easier for mucus to remain inside. To keep children’s noses clean at all times, the mucus that has formed must be removed, also to facilitate the passage of the virus and battery the neighboring organs. Flushing involves introducing a special solution into the child’s nose and passing it from one nostril to the other, softening the secretions and removing the mucus. BABY NASAL WASHES clean nose is a prerequisite for the baby’s proper breathing and protects the baby against major illnesses and infections. Excess mucus, in fact, can clog the nose and cause typical colds and respiratory tract infections. The nose is a very important organ for children, especially young children: it allows the passage, warming and filtering of air. It is important, therefore, that the nose is always perfectly clean and excess mucus removed so as not to compromise the function of the nasal mucosa. The easiest and most common way to clean one’s nose is to blow it often. Children, however, do not know how to blow their noses and only learn to do so on their own around age 6. Therefore, young children may find it helpful to perform so-called nasal washes. What are nasal washes? Nasal washes are a simple and effective method of keeping a baby’s nose clean and removing excess mucus. A nasal wash involves placing a liquid substance, usually nebulized saline solution, into the nose to clean the nasal passages and remove stagnant phlegm. Nasal washes are very important especially for infants since they breathe mainly through their noses and are more prone to airway infections. The importance of a clean nose for infants emerges especially during feeding: the baby’s mouth is busy and nasal breathing is the only possible way. Nasal washing clears the nose, removes infectious agents and allergens, combats dry mucous membranes, and prevents mucus from reaching the ears, tonsils, throat, pharynx, and bronchi. How to perform the nasal wash? To perform the nasal wash, lay your baby on the chancing table table, bed or any surface. Bend the baby’s little head to one side, insert the solution nozzle into the upper nostril and introduce the liquid into the nose. In this way, the solution passes from one nostril to the other, promoting the elimination of excess mucus. Repeat the operation on the other side, bending the child’s head to the other side. After flushing, raise the baby to encourage the mucus to come out and wipe your baby’s nose with a tissue. Before storing the nozzle, rinse it thoroughly under warm water and dry it well. It may happen that the baby’s nose is particularly stuffy and full of phlegm. NASAL WASHES PREGNANT WOMAN Health issues in pregnancy are particularly tedious, and even the smallest cold is very annoying because, as you know, you cannot take many medications. Be careful not to confuse a cold with rhinitis, however. The symptoms are similar (stuffy nose, sneezing, itching, watery eyes), but the origin is different. This disorder affects 60 percent of expectant mothers. Rhinitis gravidarum has the symptoms of those of a cold. Doctors identify this ailment when there is nasal congestion, but neither viral nor bacterial infection is in progress. And of course allergic origin is also ruled out. The cause is hormones, which increase vascularization and glandular secretions that cause the nasal mucosa to swell and become congested. This is the same explanation that we can give in case of nose bleeding, which as you know is more frequent in pregnancy. According to experts, high molecular weight hyaluronic acid can be taken. The effect is quite immediate: symptoms improve quickly and, most importantly, there is a feeling of breathing better. Moreover, hyaluronic acid, which women already know because it is the basis of many beauty treatments, is a natural substance, present in the body and in the placenta. It is consequently harmless to mother and baby. As always, hormones are responsible, which stress the mucous membrane of the nose, which swells and becomes congested. It is not a serious disorder, considering that during gestation it can really bother, but then at the time of delivery it disappears completely. There are cases, very rare, that it can cause some serious injury, for example to the turbinates, which are three bony protrusions present in the nasal fossa. When can it occur? Starting in the first trimester (from the tenth week onward) throughout pregnancy. In addition to the elevation of hormones, this situation is also created by increased blood flow (we know that mother’s blood production is definitely higher than normal) in the respiratory tract. Therefore, do not be frightened if epistaxis episodes also appear. The best thing, however, is to choose alternative ways to soften the mucous membranes and improve breathing. Use nasal washes, a humidifier in the room where you sleep, you could also try an aerosol with only distilled water. NEWBORN NASAL WASHES Nose health is very important for infants, because breathing well is a baby’s first defense against discomfort and infection; the nose is not only an organ for the passage of air but also an important link for all respiratory tracts, such as the ears, throat, and sinuses. It is obvious, therefore, that if the nose is disturbed by the presence of secretions and infections it cannot function well, especially in infants in whom the connections between the nose and other parts are even more direct. The nose also has the function of defending the body from external aggression, thanks to the mucosa, that is, the inner lining tissue. A clear nose is an excellent guarantee against colds and respiratory diseases, in fact, only if the mucosa is not obstructed by mucus can it play its role of defending infections and irritations in the best way. More attention should be paid to infants because until the first year of age the little one breathes almost exclusively through the nose, and its obstruction leads to the improper supply of oxygen to the lungs; moreover, until the age of 3 years the child is not able to blow his nose by himself, and therefore it is easier for mucus to remain inside. To keep children’s noses clean at all times, the mucus that has formed must be removed, also to facilitate the passage of the virus and battery the neighboring organs. Flushing involves introducing a special solution into the child’s nose and passing it from one nostril to the other, softening the secretions and removing the mucus. BABY NASAL WASHES A clean nose is a basic prerequisite for a baby’s proper breathing and protects the baby against major ailments and infections. Excess mucus, in fact, can clog the nose and cause typical colds and respiratory tract infections. The nose is a very important organ for babies, especially toddlers: it allows the passage, warming and filtering of air. It is important, therefore, that the nose is always perfectly clean and excess mucus removed so as not to compromise the function of the nasal mucosa. The easiest and most common way to clean one’s nose is to blow it often. Children, however, do not know how to blow their noses and only learn to do so on their own around age 6. Therefore, young children may find it helpful to perform so-called nasal washes. What are nasal washes? Nasal washes are a simple and effective method of keeping a baby’s nose clean and removing excess mucus. A nasal wash involves placing a liquid substance, usually nebulized saline solution, into the nose to clean the nasal passages and remove stagnant phlegm. Nasal washes are very important especially for infants since they breathe mainly through their noses and are more prone to airway infections. The importance of a clean nose for infants emerges especially during feeding: the baby’s mouth is busy and nose breathing is the only one possible. Nasal lavage clears the nose, removes infectious agents and allergens, combats dry mucous membranes and prevents mucus from reaching the ears, tonsils, throat, pharynx and bronchi. How to perform nasal lavage? To perform the nasal wash, lay your baby on the changing table, bed or any surface. Bend the baby’s little head to one side, insert the solution nozzle into the upper nostril and introduce the liquid into the nose. The solution passes, thus, from one nostril to the other favoring the elimination of excess mucus. Repeat the operation on the other side, bending the child’s head to the other side. After flushing, raise the baby to encourage the mucus to come out and wipe your baby’s nose with a tissue. Before storing the nozzle, rinse it thoroughly under warm water and dry it well. It may happen that the baby’s nose is particularly stuffy and full of phlegm.
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The most common diseases in pediatrics
RSV- respiratory syncytial virus It is the main cause of bronchiolitis(the inflammation of the small airways) and pneumonia. The infection starts with flu-like symptoms, such as runny nose and cough.Otitis A great many children suffer from this because of their small Eustachian tubes. These tubes connect the ears to the throat and can become blocked mainly due to the cold causing inflammation. Symptoms include fever, agitation, and of course ear pain. Most ear infections are due to viruses and cure themselves. Vaccinations help prevent infections from bacteria that can cause ear infections. Otitis media with effusion: this is a buildup of fluid in the middle ear (with or without pain) that leads to an acute ear or upper respiratory tract infection. Hand-foot-mouth disease It is an exanthematous disease that has a higher prevalence in summer and early fall. It causes fever and especially blisters on the inside of the mouth, palms, buttocks and soles of the feet. It is not particularly contagious and usually lasts about ten days. Conjunctivitis Tearing, redness, itching, and eyelashes attached due to pus are the main signs of conjunctivitis. This disorder is often caused by the same viruses that carry the cold and therefore has a rapid spread especially in schools and indoor environments. It is necessary to have the child examined for effective treatment. Fifth disease Caused by parvovirus B19, it causes a red rash mainly on the child’s face. The disease resolves spontaneously within about 10 days, and there is no special treatment. Exposure to the sun is not recommended. Rotavirus infections It is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis among infants and children under 5 years of age. Particularly in very young children (between 6 and 24 months), the virus can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. The disease has an incubation period of about two days, after which fever, stomach upset, vomiting and watery diarrhea ensue. It often heals spontaneously, but in cases of severe dehydration, it is absolutely necessary to see a doctor. Kawasaki syndrome This is a condition that mainly affects children under the age of 4 years with a peak in the second year of life. Symptoms include high fever, blotchy rashes, swelling and redness of the hands and feet, bloodshot eyes, and red and chapped lips. Without treatment, the disease can damage the heart and can be fatal. Varicella It is easily prevented by having your baby vaccinated. Because chickenpox can cause dangerous complications in infants, adults and pregnant women, getting vaccinated is highly recommended. Measles This disease is also prevented by vaccine. Infection begins with fever, runny nose and cough, after which a diffuse rash appears all over the body. Most children recover within two weeks, but in some cases the disease can also lead to pneumonia or other problems. Parotitis This is a childhood disease that was very common before the spread of the specific vaccine. The infection often has no symptomsalso the classic swelling of the glands between the ear and the jaw. Rubella It is a mild virus that usually does not cause serious problems.However, it can harm the fetus if a pregnant woman becomes infected. Symptoms are low fever and skin rash that spreads from the face to the rest of the body. MMR vaccine protects against measles, mumps and rubella. Pertussis It is a contagious, epidemic and endemic infectious disease that causes acute respiratory tract infection. Antibiotics are not particularly useful in treatment, so vaccination is essential for prevention. Meningitis It is an inflammation or infection of the tissue around the brain and spinal cord. In adolescents and adults, the main symptoms are headache, fever, and stiff neck. Young children may have flu-like symptoms or extreme irritability. Viral meningitis is usually mild, but bacterial meningitis is more severe, with serious consequences if not treated quickly. Scarlet fever It is an acute contagious infectious disease, characteristic of pediatric age, manifested by fever and a red rash accompanied by sore throat. The rash begins on the chest and abdomen and spreads throughout the body, accompanied by a strawberry-looking tongue and high fever. Without treatment, it can lead to rheumatic fever and, in rare cases, heart damage. Reye’s syndrome A pediatric illness of severe intensity that occurs due to the administration of acetylsalicylic acid (the common aspirin). It manifests with nausea, vomiting, and neurological symptoms such as memory loss and disorientation. It is also characterized by liver disorders so severe that they can lead to a state of coma until death. Impetigo A bacterial infection of the skin, often caused by staphylococcus bacteria. It is quite common especially in the summer months and, treated with the right antibiotics leaves no marks on the skin. Ringworm An infection of the skin caused by pathogenic fungi. It causes round-shaped red marks on the skin or scalp. The fungus spreads easily from child to child, so avoid sharing combs, brushes, towels and clothes. Lyme disease (borreliosis) A disease of bacterial origin that manifests with “bull’s-eye” or “target” rashes, fever, chills and muscle aches. The cause of Lyme disease is a bacterium that infests ticks, which in turn can transmit it to humans and animals.
It is a reaction to microscopic particles such as pollen that causes sneezing, watery eyes and a runny or stuffy nose. Children may constantly rub their nose with the palm of their hand, a gesture called the allergic salute. There is no cure for hay fever, but there are ways to help control symptoms.
Colds in children
A stuffy nose, difficulty breathing, sudden coughing fits, vomiting of mucus in the middle of the night, difficulty eating or latching on to the breast–these are all things every mom knows well when her baby has a cold! Practical tips to relieve baby’s cold:
HAVE HIM SLEEP WITH TWO PILLOWS UNDER THE MATTRESS
If he is more elevated he breathes better and decreases retropharyngeal discharge of mucus with reduced coughing fits and “mucousy” vomiting!
MAKE HIM DRINK ENOUGH
Good hydration is essential to make moults less dense and annoying!
NASAL CLEANSING WITH ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS (saline solution!)
What is the first thing an adult does when he or she has a cold? Obviously wash and blow his nose! And the same goes for children….
- Infants-infants-children in infancy and childhood: who do not yet know how to blow their noses, it will be useful to perform so-called “nasal washes “with isotonic solutions
- Children who already know how to blow their noses, you can clean the nose using the same solutions mentioned above, after which have the child effectively blow the nose.
NASAL CLEANSING WITH HYPERTONIC SOLUTION
Hypertonic saline can be very useful to accompany or replace saline (especially in children with particularly thick secretions that are difficult to dissolve. Recent studies show benefits of hypertonic even in children less than 1 year of age with bronchiolitis. The latter is a disease of the small airways that can sometimes have a severe course requiring hospitalization; it often starts as a trivial cold and then evolves into respiratory distress (ie: difficulty breathing!). So discuss with your pediatrician the possibility of using it for your little one, because if even what seems like a cold to you should turn into bronchiolitis within 2-3 days, hypertonic solution seems to provide significant benefits!
Fever in the child
Fever is one of the most frequent causes of concern for parents. But 80% of the febrile episodes observed in children are not attributable to a specific cause and caused by viral infections, and in these cases no antibiotics should be administered. The rise in body temperature is determined through a pathophysiological mechanism mediated by cytokines, acute phase molecules, endocrine and immunological factors. The occurrence of fever in children represents a frequent occurrence and is one of the most common symptoms occurring in the first years of life. Especially if it appears suddenly or if the body temperature reaches levels considered high, fever usually represents a cause for alarm and concern for parents. However, one important fact must be kept in mind: fever is a normal response of the body to an infection and serves the child to better defend itself against the illness and to more quickly destroy the microbes that caused it. A child has a fever when his or her core body temperature exceeds 37.5°C. In this case, the first useful action is to find out to help him disperse the excess heat and to make him drink a lot , but without forcing him to eat if he is not feeling up to it. If the fever exceeds 38.5°C, antipyretic should be administered, remembering that according to World Health Organization indications the drug to be preferred in children and adolescents is paracetamol, which is effective, safe and very well tolerated. If the little one falls asleep and then wakes with difficulty, only after prolonged stimulation, it means that he or she is not well. Breathing signs should then be observed and the baby’s good hydration should be checked, this is possible by inspecting the very small baby’s diaper; poor urine output is a possible sign of the beginning of dehydration, this should also be ascertained by checking the mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth. Another key element of checking the hydration condition of the baby is the body weight. Parents should know what the child’s weight is so that a useful comparison can be made by weighing him or her as soon as he or she begins to show symptoms of a gastroenteric form, with vomiting and dysentery. If you notice a weight loss of about ten percent, for example, half a kilogram in a child who weighs five kilograms, a form of dehydration may be present. Therefore, fluids should be given to the baby: water and attach him to the breast more often. It is advisable to try to create the best conditions for the baby’s comfort and thus to favor the natural evolution of fever. First of all, it is important not to cover the baby excessively: with a plush cotton pajamas or a comfortable jumpsuit, to which a light sweater and a pair of socks may be added. If the baby should have chills, it is because the fever is rising, in which case we can lay him in the crib with a light blanket and, if necessary, a bag of warm water on his feet, to be removed as soon as the chills have passed. To promote the baby’s well-being, it is also important to accommodate his or her feeding wishes. Breastfed infants can continue to take milk from their mother: the mother’s sucking and warmth is a source of comfort and hydration for them, helping them to recover sooner. For bottle-fed babies, it is good to avoid taking initiative about the amount of meals or the dilution of milk. When a baby has a fever, he or she has less appetite than usual. This is a normal reaction, due to the fact that the body needs to save energy, otherwise spent in the digestive process, to devote all to fighting the infection. On the other hand, it is important to hydrate the baby as much as possible: if he is already a few months old, in addition to plain water at room temperature, lukewarm milk can be offered to him. If the baby is very young, under three months of age, and the fever is above 38 degrees rectal and is persistent, it is good not to waste time and go to the emergency room for a complete examination aimed at excluding respiratory forms such as bronchiolitis.
Infants and children have been breastfed for millennia, only in the last century has breastfeeding declined due to the discovery of infant formula. Today, however, many mothers are aware that by breastfeeding they are giving their baby the best possible nourishment. Breast milk is healthy, convenient and always present in the right amount and composition. Breast milk contains all the nutrients necessary for the baby to have a perfect start in life. In addition, breast milk changes by adapting individually to the needs of the growing infant and child. Some important benefits for the baby are:
- Breast milk is easily digested, does not overload the baby’s metabolism, and nutrients are absorbed and assimilated well.
- Immune substances that are contained in breast milk protect the baby from viral and bacterial infections. In addition, components of breast milk promote the development of the immune system in the baby.
- The maxilla and mandible develop better with breastfeeding and oral muscle movements. Later children suffer less from abnormalities in tooth position and speech disorders.
- Breastfeeding reduces the risk of dying from sudden crib death.
- Breastfeeding is more than giving nourishment. It develops all the senses and satisfies many needs. Through close body contact, the baby feels warmth, security and affection. A deep emotional relationship is born between mother and baby.
Not only the baby, the mother also profits from breastfeeding:
- After childbirth, breastfeeding especially if frequent promotes fast and effective uterine involution thus decreasing blood loss.
- The risk of breast cancer or ovarian cancer decreases.
- Breastfeeding and especially prolonged breastfeeding protects against osteoporosis.
- In addition, breastfeeding relieves the wallet and the environment.
To promote breastfeeding and adequate milk production, it is essential that a strong mother-child bond is established as early as possible. Hence the importance of the first moment after birth (bonding) and rooming-in. In addition, the oxytocin reflex is more complicated than the prolactin reflex and can be influenced by maternal thoughts, feelings, and concerns. Positive feelings, such as feeling satisfied with your baby, thinking tenderly of your baby and feeling convinced that your milk is the best for your baby, or even sensations such as touching and looking at your baby, or listening to your baby cry, promote the oxytocin reflex. In contrast, negative feelings, such as pain, worry, or fear that there is not enough milk, can prevent the reflex and suspend the flow of milk. Fortunately, this effect is temporary. In the Preterm, the mother can either pull the milk with the baby in the incubator (the mother looks at or touches the baby in the ‘incubator and pulls the milk at the same time) or carry it out after kangaroo care practice.
Crying is the only option available to infants to communicate, to their caregivers, a need or a problem. Infants, however, cry not only to communicate an immediate need but also cry to relieve tension and stress. It often happens that infants cry for reasons that at first glance are not related to any immediate need. As early as 1962, Brazelton discovered that infants cry for an average of one and a half to two hours per day for no apparent reason. The peak intensity and duration of crying is between 6 and 8 weeks of age then gradually decreases. This pattern is not characteristic of Western infants but also of those in indigenous societies (although slightly less). Classic explanations for prolonged and inconsolable crying are most often made to coincide with organic and presumably physiological causes. The most frequently invoked is that of so-called gaseous colic, about which people have written extensively, seeking explanations and irrefutable proof of their existence often without much success. Similarly with regard to the immaturity of the gastrointestinal system or on the possibility of allergies to various substances in breast milk (cow’s milk, coffee, alcohol, eggs, nuts, citrus fruits, legumes, onions, strawberries, etc.) or in adapted milk. In fact, past 12 weeks of age most babies tend to cry less regardless of parental initiatives. Since the usual explanations of the reasons for crying in infants are insufficient, it would be useful to consider possible emotional causes as well. It seems that young children cry mainly for two reasons. One is to communicate a need such as changing position, being nursed, or being held. The other relates to the function of releasing tension and physical and psychological stress. In case crying does not communicate an immediate physical need, it would, in fact, represent an innate automatism of release from tension, which would enable children to overcome the effects of previously occurring experiences of fright or frustration. Many developmental psychiatrists and therapists consider crying a useful expression of feelings with therapeutic value. Some sources of stress and trauma are obvious, while others are not. Six main categories of trauma or stress during childhood could be identified: pre- and perinatal trauma, unmet needs, overstimulation, growth-related frustrations, physical pain, and fear-provoking experiences. To identify sources of infant stress, researchers have often analyzed cortisol levels during various situations. In fact, cortisol levels in infants are usually elevated at birth and during the period immediately after birth. There is a gradual reduction in cortisol levels up to six months of age, after which little significant change occurs. Crying itself does not seem to activate any stress reaction while both crying and stress reaction are provoked by stressful events.
What to do when an infant cries?
It is important to remember that some stress is inevitable. It is not possible to protect a child from life, and besides, the processes of learning and growth always involve some suffering and frustration. So rather than making babies stop crying, it would be helpful to reduce the sources of stress that create the need to cry in very early childhood without neglecting the importance of spending a peaceful pregnancy. In addition, a parent’s task should be to teach children how to manage and cope with emotions resulting from stress. Usually parents, with the best of intentions, suppress crying by offering some kind of distraction that in the end does nothing to relax the baby who will continue to cry almost as if it is not understood. Instead, learning to manage crying constructively could greatly reduce tensions and stress within the family thus preventing physical and verbal abuse by parents who are often exasperated and unnerved by a child’s incessant and incomprehensible crying. Listening sympathetically to children who express the need to cry helps strengthen the adult/child bond. In other words, the crying of infants and children should never be ignored but processed with warmth and empathy by accepting it so as to understand whether it communicates meaning of physical or emotional distress.
Whether day or night, babies and young children need the loving care and closeness of the caregiver(s). Their needs are the same 24 hours a day and they have not yet developed a notion of time. If left alone, the baby or toddler is forced to face great fear. In normal cases, he activates a healthy attachment method: that is, he puts forth everything possible to reach out to the caregiver. He cries for his parents to take him close to them, comfort him and instill a feeling of security. If his parents do not respond to his request for closeness and protection, he experiences acute separation pain and his trust cracks, what can undermine the proper formation of so-called “secure” attachment and impair future development. This is why it is surprising to see people who professionally counsel parents continue to suggest to them methods such as so-called “learning to sleep” (Ferber method or “controlled crying” in English; Dr. Ferber’s theories are popularized in Italian in the book “Tutti i bambini fanno la nanna” by Annette Kast-Zahn and Hartmut Morgenroth). It involves leaving the baby alone at night in the dark, even if this situation is obviously causing the baby pain. The technique of “letting the child cry,” very much in vogue long ago, is now rejected and seen by all specialists as a very painful and nefarious methodology for the child. However, the technique of letting cry but with different intervals of presence (so-called “controlled frustration conditioning” or again “adapted extinction”) is often considered suitable, although these practices are equally problematic for the child. Distressed and stressed, the baby is probably not aware of the few minutes of attention provided by these methods, minutes that serve mainly for the parents to soothe their bad conscience. So far, the side effects of the Ferber method have not been examined in any controlled prospective study. Conducting such research would also be ethically impermissible. Can people whose function is to counsel parents therefore be allowed to recommend the Ferber method? In the context of breastfeeding counseling, we regularly meet mothers who, concerned about their babies’ sleep behavior, have been advised to apply a “sleep learning” program modeled after the Ferber method. But so many mothers instinctively feel that this way of proceeding is not healthy for their children. Those who have applied the method for a limited period of time are often even more concerned about the intensity of their baby’s crying. The constant awakenings are a challenge for most parents and can cause deep fatigue. But parents who are better able to understand their babies’ behavior during sleep, through competent information, and who feel empowered in their loving way of responding to their baby, often experience nighttime awakenings better. In addition, there are good methods of influencing the child’s sleep in a positive way, without letting the child cry alone (see indicated literature).
Allergy refers to an abnormal response of the immune system triggered by contact with substances foreign to the body that are commonly harmless. In hereditarily predisposed children, allergies cause symptoms, inflammation and disease in different organs and systems: – the lung (asthma); – the skin (eczema, hives); – the eyes and nose (hay fever). The hereditarily predisposed child (often a child born to allergic parents), when in contact with normally harmless foreign substances (the allergens), very easily and in large quantities produces a type of antibodies, immunoglobulin E (reagine, IgE), which trigger allergic reactions and allergic diseases. Allergy can appear at any age, even in the first year of life, and is precisely influenced by genetic predisposition. If mom and dad are not allergic, the risk of a child being allergic is 10 to 15%. If one of the parents is allergic, the risk rises to 30% while if both parents suffer from an allergic disease, the risk reaches 60 – 80%. Allergy is thus a condition in which the immune system recognizes a normally harmless foreign substance (allergen) as if it were an aggressive agent to be vigorously defended against, triggering a violent inflammatory reaction.
Most common allergic forms
– Allergic rhinitis – Allergic conjunctivitis – Asthma – Eczema or atopic dermatitis – Urticaria Allergic rhinitis It is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa that causes itching, sneezing, watery nasal discharge and a stuffy nose sensation: the child obsessively rubs the tip of the nose (the so-called “allergic salute”). The perennial one is caused by inhalation of mainly household allergens (especially dust mites that feed on human dander), while the seasonal one is caused by pollens (grasses, parietaria, olive, etc.) and some molds (alternaria).
Allergic conjunctivitis, often associated with rhinitis (oculorhinitis), consists of inflammation of the eye. It will be perennial or seasonal depending on whether it is caused by a year-round allergen or only at certain times. It can manifest itself with different symptoms: – the eye is red, watery, and the child feels as if he has “sand in his eyes”; – the itching is so intense that the child keeps rubbing his eyes with his hands, further worsening the inflammation; – the eyes are so inflamed that the child with allergic conjunctivitis is very bothered even by sunlight.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchi, characterized by labored and wheezing breathing. It is difficult to diagnose before the age of 5 years because wheezing is common in early childhood, even in nonallergic children: in fact, it depends on the very small diameter of the bronchi. In young children, the bronchi easily become clogged during acute viral infections, with symptoms very similar to those of allergic asthma. If the episodes of bronchial obstruction and expiratory wheezing continue or begin after the age of 5 years, we can speak of true chronic bronchial asthma, which, in the vast majority of cases, is allergic in origin. It may also begin with a dry, wheezing cough, but as it worsens, bronchial spasm becomes evident and whistling and hissing are experienced during exhalation of air because the narrowing of the bronchial lumen is accentuated. The child experiences difficulty breathing, is agitated, breathing becomes labored, and, if the obstruction is very severe, may exhibit dark coloring (cyanotic) due to insufficient tissue oxygenation.
Eczema or atopic dermatitis
It is a chronic-recurrent inflammatory skin disease characterized by intensely itchy inflammation. In the acute phase, papules, vesicles, and serous discharge prevail, while in the chronic phase dryness and thickening of the skin (so-called lichenification) predominate. The inflammation is accompanied by an exaggerated reactivity of the skin: thus a vicious circle is created and the disease becomes chronic: the skin is reddened, itching is intense, and sores (fissures) are present mostly in the folds of the neck, armpits, and groin. Scratching worsens the inflammation and facilitates infection of the skin by bacteria such as staphylococcus. Atopic eczema has many features in common with allergic diseases: – family history of allergic diseases; – high IgE levels; – the presence of IgE antibodies directed against various allergens; – the frequent presence in the same child of other allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Allergy alone, however, does not explain allergic dermatitis. Other factors such as infections and exaggerated sensitivity of the skin to all stimuli contribute to it: rubbing, change of temperature and exposure to sunlight.
It is very well recognizable because it is characterized by the appearance of pomphi: protuberances of the skin a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter, usually pale in color but surrounded by a red halo. The pompho causes intense itching and can last from a few minutes to several hours as well as being able to change in shape. Sometimes the bump extends and becomes conspicuous especially to the lips, eyelids, extremities of the limbs, genitalia or other areas of the body taking the name angioedema. In infants, angioedema of the hands, feet, face and genitals is common. In the course of one’s life about 1 in 5 people will have at least one episode of urticaria: in children the incidence varies from 5% to 7%, but these are mostly acute episodes; chronic urticaria affects only 0.2 to 1% of children. In most cases, acute urticaria is triggered by infections and sometimes by the combined effect of the infection and the drugs used to treat it (e.g., antibiotics). Far more rarely, a food allergy or intestinal parasitosis is in cause.
Food allergy is a reaction triggered by the ingestion of food proteins such as those from animal milk, chicken egg, wheat, soy, fish, fruits and vegetables. It affects less than 1 percent of children and in most cases spontaneously improves by age 6, when the child becomes tolerant to the food in question. Manifestations caused by food allergy can be: – gastrointestinal (gastrointestinal anaphylaxis,vomiting and diarrhea, blood in the stool, severe abdominal colic as a result of eating the suspected food); – cutaneous (urticaria-angioedema, especially if affecting the lips and tongue; atopic dermatitis); – rarely respiratory (rhinitis and asthma). Promotion of breastfeeding is the main tool for delaying or avoiding the occurrence of manifestations resulting from cow’s milk allergy in the infant.
The noisy breath
Many parents, especially first-time parents, worry about hearing their baby’s breathing being noisy and fast. In reality, the noisiness of an infant’s breathing is a physiological condition due to the conformation of the nasal passages, which creates a kind of turbulence as air passes through. The infant’s nasal mucous membranes also react very easily to stimuli from the external environment such as moisture, temperature changes, smoke, etc. This promotes the production of nasal secretions that increase air resistance and consequent noise. The baby, especially in the first months of life, is not yet able to expectorate the produced mucus on its own, and the air in the nose that passes through these secretions creates a rumbling in the rib cage. The newborn’s breathing, moreover, is, generally, very rapid. This is because the capacity of the infant’s lungs to store air is less than that of an adult. If noisy breathing in the newborn is not accompanied by other complaints such as an intense, nocturnal cough, there is no need to worry. It will suffice to clean the baby’s nose with a saline solution to rid it of any mucus and make it breathe better. It is important, however, to pay attention and learn to recognize the different noises the baby makes while breathing:
- snoring: results from an obstruction that prevents the proper passage of air into the nose or throat. The main cause of snoring in children is enlarged adenoids or tonsils, which, especially during sleep, can result in interruptions in breathing called apneas;
- wheezing: this is a noise caused by air that, obstructed by mucus, vibrates in the baby’s throat and rib cage. It can be heard by placing a hand on the baby’s back;
- Stridor: is a vibrating noise that occurs when the infant inhales air. It is characteristic of inflammation of the larynx. Generally, it is accompanied by a metallic, hoarse cough;
- Asthmatic breathing: is a noise that the child makes when exhaling air. It is caused by inflammation or obstruction of the bronchi (e.g., asthma).
To help the child breathe better it is generally enough to clear and keep his nose clean. If this is not enough and the noisiness is accompanied by other complaints such as wheezing and squealing sounds, metallic cough, and fever, it is advisable to consult the pediatrician.
The importance of the right home microclimate
When a baby arrives in the home, it is essential that parents keep an eye on every detail. Everything, even what previously appeared insignificant, must be baby-proofed. One of the most important aspects to consider is the environment in which the newcomer is to live. Specifically, the air in the home will have to be optimal for the health of babies. In infants, in fact, the thermoregulation mechanisms, which enable them to maintain a constant body temperature, are not yet fully functional. This results in the baby consuming more oxygen in the presence of changes in temperature and humidity. Therefore, it is up to the parents to ensure that the baby has what is known as thermoneutrality: an optimal environment in which the baby will be able to maintain his or her own body temperature without expenditure of energy. For a healthy baby born at the right time and properly clothed, the ideal temperature is 22° both day and night while the relative humidity should be between40 and 60 percent. In contrast, for a baby born prematurely, weighing more than 2 kg and dressed, the thermoneutral environment calls for a temperature of 24° and a relative humidity of 50%. The water for bathing should also be controlled: its temperature should be 36-37°. Numerous scientific researches have shown that incorrect temperature and excessive humidity can cause health problems for the baby. Excessive humidity in homes, caused by infiltration or condensation, and the consequent presence of mold and other parasites promote infections in children. In detail, children living in damp environments are more prone to sore throats, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, respiratory allergies, asthma, earaches and ear infections. However, environments that are too dry can also create problems for children, causing irritation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and thus nose obstruction and throat infections. In order to maintain proper air humidity in homes, it is necessary to have fully functioning heating and ventilation systems . Air exchange is also essential to maintain the right home microclimate: even during winter it is good to open the windows for about an hour a day to ventilate the rooms. If the air in the house is dry, it is advisable to humidify it through , for example, crock humidifiers to be attached to radiators or electric ones. These devices, thanks to water vapor, restores the right level of humidity in the air. If, on the other hand, the humidity is excessive you can use the dehumidifier.
How to cope with the autumn season
With the arrival of autumn and early cold weather, we are at greater risk of contracting colds or other flu symptoms. Colds affect everyone: from children and young people to the elderly. However, we can defend ourselves or at least prevent it.
Sneezing, runny nose, phlegm and red, watery eyes. These are the symptoms of the vacation return cold that affect cca 10 thousand Italian children in the first days of autumn. The temperature change blocks the main defense mechanism of the first respiratory tract and promotes the introduction of viruses. But be careful: these are not seasonal flu but parainfluenza viruses (there are 260 different types and each one strikes with different symptoms ranging from colds to sore throats) that should be treated with self-medication drugs and a lot of patience.
Special attention to infants who are particularly vulnerable to low temperatures: it is best to avoid baby carriers when it is cold and prefer baby carriage or stroller; always wear a hat because 30 percent of heat loss occurs through the head. Finally, nor good to seek advice from the pediatrician to initiate therapy to strengthen the immune system in preparation for the cold season.
But why do we get sick with flu, coughs and colds?
The immune system, with cold weather outside, is weakened by the extra work required by thermoregulation. In such cases for example, cold air, which dries out, can cause changes and small lesions in the mucous membranes, from which viruses and bacteria can penetrate. In addition, external cold contracts peripheral blood vessels, reduces the amount of blood in tissues, and lowers the number of antibodies involved in defense against influenza viruses.
Various factors can lead to typical winter diseases affecting the respiratory system, such as colds, rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, sinusitis, and aphonia. In fact, the respiratory system, coming into direct contact with cold air, suffers more from the negative effects of low temperatures.
Therefore, one must defend oneself with the preventive tools and remedies against cold diseases, especially at times of temperature changes.
So how to cope with the first ills of the season without the risk of unpleasant consequences on the family ménage? The watchwords are prevention and prompt action Here, then, are some tips for avoiding and managing the onset of colds.
- Use disposable tissues and throw them in a closed bin to avoid infection of those around us
- Doing nasal washes
- Protect throat and nose, especially in crowded places and in contact with infected people
- Wash hands frequently, preferably with antiseptic cleansers
- Take care of your diet: incorporate fruits and vegetables within your diet, particularly with cabbage, which contains iron, vitamin C and minerals; garlic, due to its significant amount of iron, minerals and vitamins; and citrus fruits, which are rich in vitamin C.
Nasir ® is a CE medical device. Specially designed for the hygiene of the nasal cavities of children and adults and to facilitate cleansing in cases of nasal congestion such as colds, sinusitis, rhinitis, and respiratory allergies in general (including from pollen) and to aid in the progressive removal of nasal secretions. Nasir® is a fast and effective means to help purify the nasal cavities by removing excess mucus and prevent secondary infections and complications such as otitis.
Request a free sample of Nasir Isotonic or Hypertonic to get immediate relief and clear your nose. Nasir will be sent to your home at no shipping cost.
The rigors of every season and the fight against nasal congestion, allergies and micropowder pollution are among the most debated issues especially in childhood. The World Health Organization has found in large Italian cities a truly alarming presence of microdust; data tell us that respiratory diseases in children are on the rise and that every year there are at least 30,000 children affected by acute bronchitis. Pediatricians are increasingly recommending cycles of thermal cures to young patients to prevent or treat respiratory diseases or allergic forms. Today there is a rediscovery of the benefits of some healthy habits that could have excellent therapeutic results using saline solutions that act immediately on the nasal cavities giving relief and optimizing breathing. In addition, the inability of little ones to blow their noses encourages stagnant secretions that facilitate germs to take root. Hypertrophy of the adenoids results in the baby breathing noisily at night, often with the mouth open, sometimes snoring, and the voice may become nasal. In the winter and spring months, children suffer frequent colds and hearing disturbances due to the accumulation of phlegm in the Eustachian tubes. By boosting the child’s immune defenses, it is possible, to achieve proper prevention of the onset of flu episodes and all forms of colds, tonsillitis or pharyngitis that often affect the health of toddlers. Convincing toddlers to have a nasal wash or shower could have a preventive and therapeutic effect. Therefore, it is important that the child be supervised by the parent especially during the first nasal washes.
A gradual and educational approach allows the child to become more involved, allowing him or her to feel comfortable, empowered and directed toward confident autonomy in nasal lavage. Thermal inhalations constitute a remedy, as effective as it is natural, for all pathologies of the upper and lower airways; with a marked decongestant and anti-inflammatory effect on the mucous membranes, they promote a proper reaction to external aggressions.
The nasal shower today represents a preventive and curative action of the nasal districts to be practiced with saline solutions at body temperature or slightly above. It is indicated in the prevention of nasal congestion of the nasal mucous membranes and paranasal sinuses and in chronic nasal conditions such as mucopurulent and crusty rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. It is usually performed daily or every other day and can be combined with other inhalation therapies. Nasal douche releases catarrhal secretions by combining a pleasant “water massage.” It also allows intense absorption of the active ingredients (trace elements and mineral salts) contained in the solution, as well as a deep local cleansing and moistening action. Its simple pressure use on the dispenser makes it easy to reach the sinuses in addition to being indicated for sinusitis and nasopharyngitis. It is a great way to cleanse the mucous membranes before any other therapy and open the annoying “stuffy nose.” Contact us for a free trial for you and your baby.
Nasir Baby® will be sent to your home at no shipping cost.
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